Troubleshooting - How to's

What to check if no gas is coming from my gas supply.

There are a few simple checks to carry out which allow you to determine and possibly correct the problem. Please carry them out in the order listed. While this section is based on LP Gas tanks, the procedure for a cylinder supply is similar. Before you continue, make sure that you have turned off all burners that do not have flame-failure devices fitted - in particular, make sure all cooker and grill taps are in the off position.

1) Check that the tank is not empty

Tank contents gauge

On the vast majority of tanks, the contents gauge is on the top of the tank facing upwards (do not confuse it with the other gauge on the tank, a pressure gauge, which is screwed into the valve that your gas supply pipe is connected to and is shown in the next photo). The contents gauge is graduated in percentages, and 5% or less means that it is empty.

If, instead of a bulk tank, you have cylinders connected to an automatic changeover regulator, the regulator will usually display a red indicator if the bank of cylinders is empty. They have a knob which you can turn to get it to operate from the reserve bank - if it also shows red in this position, you are out of gas (or the cylinders are turned off).

2) Check that the isolation valves are not turned off

Service valve (with pressure gauge)

There are usually two, one is at the tank - your gas supply pipe is screwed into this valve. It works similarly to an ordinary water tap - turn it clockwise to turn it off and anticlockwise to turn it on. The picture shows a service valve with a pressure gauge (which is usually but not always fitted).

Ball valve in ON position

There is usually a second valve on the outside of your premises, close to where the gas supply pipe enters your building - this is a quarter-turn valve, make sure it is also in the on position (the photo shows it in the on position, when it is in the off position the handle is perpendicular to the pipe).

Cylinder installations often have an isolation valve on the pipework between the cylinders and where the pipe enters the house, in addition to the cylinder valves, which operate similar to a tank service valve.

3) Check that the excess-flow valve in the tank is not engaged

This should not normally happen, but it may arise if (a) the tank was empty and then filled or (b) an isolation valve was turned off for an extended period or to carry out work on the pipework. The service valve on the tank (to which the pipework is connected) has an internal safety device called an excess-flow valve which reduces the supply to a trickle if there is a sudden surge of gas. This prevents a large leak if, for example, the pipework is broken by vandals. To check and reset it:

  • Turn off all gas appliances. It is usually impossible to re-pressurise the system if there are appliances trying to draw gas from the system.
  • Turn the service valve off and wait 15 seconds. If you hear a small click sound, this is the excess-flow valve releasing itself into the open position, so continue with the rest of this procedure. If you do not hear a click, then this was not your problem, so open the service valve fully and check for another problem.
  • Open the valve one sixth of a turn - you should hear gas flowing through the system. Wait until the gas has pressurised (filled up) the system, when the flow will stop. If you hear a small click and/or the flow stopping during this, it is the excess flow valve shutting off again - repeat the procedure from the start, but do not open the valve quite so much the next time.
  • When the flow stops, indicating that the gas has fully pressurised the system, slowly open the service valve fully.

Some cylinder installations have similar excess flow valves located in the ends of the hoses. To get these to open, turn off all appliances and wait about 15 minutes for the valves to open.

Note that these excess-flow valves will usually open themselves anyway if they are left for long enough, because they incorporate a small bleed hole which should eventually re-pressurise the system.

4) Check that the regulator is not locked out

Some systems are fitted with low and/or high pressure lockout devices as part of one of the regulators (typically domestic central heating systems and small domestric/industrial systems). These typically lock out if the tank is allowed to go empty.

5) I still have a problem

Make sure you really have a gas supply problem and not an appliance problem - if you have more than one appliance and one or more are operating satisfactorily, the problem is most likely with the appliance. If you only have a problem at high demand (i.e. each appliance operates fine on it's own but you get problems when all are running simultaneously) you may have a problem due to the pipework being too small, an undersized regulator, or too small / too few tanks or cylinders. Contact your installer.

Resetting regulator under and over pressure lockouts

Some LP Gas bulk tank systems are fitted with low and/or high pressure lockout devices usually as an integral part of one of the regulators (typically domestic central heating systems and small domestric/industrial systems). These devices are also called UPSO or OPSO devices. These typically lock out if the tank is allowed to go empty or if they detect a fault on the system (the gas pressure in the pipework going above or below a preset limit). This section describes the different types in use by Flogas and how to reset them. Note they will NOT reset if there is still a problem, and NEVER try to disable them as you will undoubtedly be leaving your installation in a dangerous condition.

 

Schulz & Rackow Low and High Pressure Cut-Off Regulator

Cut-Off Regulator

While some are yellow, as shown in this picture, most are blue. They are usually located on the LP Gas tank. The smaller top unit in the picture is the high-pressure cut-out, the larger lower one is the low-pressure cut-out. The transparent plastic caps (on the right of the regulators, see see next photo also) should only black inside the caps. If you see a red indicator inside the caps, then that unit has tripped out.

Cut-Off Regulator

To reset the unit, unscrew the transparent plastic cap, and pull the shaft outwards - you will hear the gas flowing through, and hold it out for a couple of seconds until the gas re-pressurises the downstream pipework. Replace the transparent cap. If it has reset properly, you won't see the red marker anymore.

 

Sclumberger Automatic Cut-Off Regulator

Cut-Off Regulator Cut-Off Regulator Cut-Off Regulator

This is grey or silver, and typically located at the LP Gas tank or, less frequently, on the outside of the building where the gas supply enters the house.

To reset it, first unscrew the plug at the bottom of the regulator. This may be stiff, and a pliers or vice-grips may be needed. Note the the shaft protruding from the bottom of the plug - this is threaded at the end. Apart from being a sealing plug, this is the tool used to reset the device.

Now turn the plug upside-down and screw it onto the shaft in the regulator (it does not have to be tight) as shown. Gently pull it down, you should hear the gas going through the regulator as it fills up the pipework with gas. When the flow stops, let it go, unscrew the plug, and put it back on the way it was originally.

 

Cut-Off Regulator

Jeavons / Cavagna Automatic Cut-Off Regulator

This design was made by Jeavons, Cavagna, and some others. It is invariably either grey or green. It is typically located at the LP Gas tank or, less frequently, on the outside of the building where the gas supply enters the house. It has two separate reset mechanisms, (a) one for locking out due to too low a pressure, highlighted in the left red circle, and (b) one for too high a pressure, in the right-hand red circle. It is very unlikely that the high-pressure lockout will have tripped.
Cut-Off Regulator

For the low pressure lockout, unscrew the cap (in the left-hand circle on the previous picture) revealing the plunger shown on the left. Gently pull the plunger out, you should hear the gas going through the regulator as it fills up the pipework with gas. When the flow stops, let it go, and replace the cap.

Cut-Off Regulator

For the high pressure lockout (again it is very unlikely that this will have tripped and it usually indicates a more serious problem), unscrew the cap (in the right-hand circle on the picture at the beginning of this section). Depending on the model, either (a) the cap comes off easily to reveal a plunger similar to the low-pressure lockout or (b) as shown on the left, the cap unscrews but stays affixed to the plunger. In either case, gently pull the plunger or cap out, you should hear the gas going through the regulator as it fills up the pipework with gas. When the flow stops, let it go, and replace the cap.

 

Cut-Off RegulatorClesse Automatic Cut-Off Regulator (Type 3427)

 

This is a golden colour, and typically located at the LP Gas tank or on the outside of the building where the gas supply enters the house. To reset it, simply turn the knob in the direction of the arrow, hold it in that position until you hear the flow of gas stopping, then gently release it.

 

Cut-Off Regulator

Clesse Automatic Cut-Off Valve

This shut off is usually fiited indoors beside a cooker or hob that is on a bulk tank supply. It does not incorporate a regulator. The picture shows it in the ON position. To reset it, turn the large knob a quarter-turn to the off position and then slowly turn it back on again. It can also be used as an on/off valve.

 

Francel B Series Type B6Francel B Series Type B6

This is grey or silver, and typically located at the LP Gas tank or, less frequently, on the outside of the building where the gas supply enters the house. To reset it, push the white lever down until gas can be heard passing through. Be sure not to push the lever the whole way down or it will cut out the system. Hold down the lever until the system has been repressurised and release.

 

Mesura B6 10

Cut-Off Regulator
This is grey or silver, and typically located at the LP Gas tank or, less frequently, on the outside of the building where the gas supply enters the house. It has two separate reset mechanisms, (a) one for locking out due to too low a pressure which is the section with the green tipped lever and (b) one for too high a pressure which is under the red cap . It is very unlikely that the high-pressure lockout will have tripped.

For the low pressure lockout, push the lever, you should hear the gas going through the regulator as it fills up the pipework with gas. When the flow stops, let it go. Lever should remain in the down position.

To reset the high pressure lock out (again it is very unlikely that this will have tripped and it usually indicates a more serious problem) unscrew the red cap and pull the plunger out until gas can be heard passing through downstream. Once the system has repressurised release the plunger and replace the cap.

Guide for Bulk LP Gas Tank Separation Distances

The following table lists the distances you need to keep between gas tanks and other features. Pick your tank configuration from the left-hand column and read across for the distances that apply to you.

Tank number & size

Separation from tank to buildings or fixed sources of ignition...

Separation from tank to BLANK wall of building. Note wall must not have doors, windows, vents, etc. (see note 1 also)

Separation from tank to boundary or property line...

Distance between tanks

Distance from tank to fire wall

...without fire wall

...with fire wall (see note 1)

...if boundary is a wall at least 2m high (see note 1)

...other boundaries (eg fences, open boundaries, low walls)

1 x 100 gallon to 3 x 100 gallon

2.5m

0.3m

0.3m

0.3m

2.5m

0.3m

0.3m

1 x 1/2 tonne to 3 x 1 tonne

3m

1.5m

1.5m

1.5m

3m

1m

1.5 to 3m

4 x 1 to 6 x 1 tonne

1 x 2 to 6 x 2 tonne

1 x 4 to 3 x 4 tonne

7.5m

4m

7.5m

4m

7.5m

1m

1.5 to 3m

4 x 4 to 6 x 4 tonne

1 x 12 to 6 x 12 tonne

1 x 20 to 6 x 20 tonne

1 x 50 to 4 x 50 tonne

15m

7.5m

15m

7.5m

15m

1.5m

1.5 to 3m

Larger or more than preceding tanks

Consult Flogas

Dimension in following sketch

A

B

(not shown)

C

D

E

F

Notes:

  1. You can only use these reduced separation distances on one side only. The other three sides must meet the separation distance in the first column (i.e. A).
  2. There must be line of sight to the tank from the tanker filling point.
  3. Forklift filling points (and any other liquid offtakes) must be piped in 3/4" Schedule 80 pipe a minimum of 3m from the tank(s).

What Type of Gas Supply Do I Need?

This depends primarily on what gas equipment you wish to use. The following are general guidelines will be of assistance, but please remember that if you contact Flogas we can work out what you will need.

Butane Cylinder

Cabinet heaters (Super-Ser is the most widely known brand) have a built-in enclosure to take a standard size Butane cylinder. Domestic cookers can also be fed from a standard size Butane cylinder.

Propane Cylinder

The next step up in terms of gas supplies are propane cylinders located outdoors connected to an automatic changeover regulator. In the case of a two-cylinder changeover regulator, both cylinders are connected up and left turned on. The regulator will draw gas from one of these cylinders, and when that empties, it will automatically switch over to the other "reserve" cylinder. It's indicator will change from white to red to indicate that it has changed to the reserve cylinder, so that you may contact your local dealer who will call and replace the cylinder for you.

Two-cylinder automatic changeover regulators are used for gas fires. Four or six cylinder automatic changeover regulators are used for domestic central heating systems (depending on the size of the apartment / house). Domestic central heating systems can also be fed from a 250 gallon bulk tank (delivered into by a gas tanker from Flogas).

Bulk Gas

For restaurants, hotels, commercial and industrial users, the issue is somewhat more complicated. An estimate of the average usage per working hour and per week needs to be made. The usage per hour is needed because the different tank sizes have a limit as to how much gas they can supply (they can supply considerably more than this over shorter periods, but it is the average usage that is the limiting factor). For this purpose, and as a rough guide, the average gas usage of radiant heaters is 100% of their input rating; for other heating and water heating applications it is 50% of the input rating; for catering equipment it is 25% of the input rating. The input rating is both marked on the equipment and on the manufacturer's brochures. In case of difficulty, the manufacturer or Flogas should be able to help determine the average usage. You then need to estimate from the table below what storage you need to supply this usage. Generally, you should keep the number of cylinders to a maximum of twelve and the number of tanks to a maximum of six in picking your choice.

In addition to this requirement, we recommend that you need enough storage to supply you for two weeks in the case of cylinders and three weeks in the case of tanks. You may need to increase your previous estimate to take account of this.

Container Size

Maximum Usage per Hour

Storage Capacity

75lb propane cylinder

23.5 kW (80,000 Btu/hr)

490 kW hr (1,680,000 Btu)

104lb propane cylinder

23.5 kW (80,000 Btu/hr)

680 kW hr (2,330,000 Btu)

Half tonne tank

128 kW (440,000 Btu/hr)

7,020 kW hr (24,000,000 Btu)

One tonne tank

170 kW (580,000 Btu/hr)

14,040 kW hr (48,000,000 Btu)

Two tonne tank

317 kW (1,080,000 Btu/hr)

28,080 kW hr (96,000,000 Btu)

Four tonne tank

522 kW (1,780,000 Btu/hr)

56,160 kW hr (192,000,000 Btu)

Larger tanks

Consult Flogas

There are different regulatory space requirements for the above options, and for assistance on this, please consult the Guide for Bulk LPG Tank Separation Distances.

It is obvious that the above is complicated and the optimum solution is far from obvious. You may also find that you do not appear to have the space to accomodate your requirements. Flogas have trained staff and countrywide representatives who can solve your problem over the telephone or by a site visit if necessary, and we would be glad to help - please do contact Flogas.

How Do I Use Cylinder Regulators?

This section is concerned with guidance on the correct selection of different hose types to suit individual applications. This reflects Irish regulations and practice. Read the section on "Selecting the Correct Hose Type" first to determine which section covers the type of hose you need, then go to that section for guidance on it's use. Note that in many cases, a hose need not be used: do not needlessly connect appliances to pipework using hoses - in most cases, it is safer to run the gas supply pipework directly to the appliance without a hose. This is particularly important where the hose will be subsequently hidden, making any examination of the condition of the hose impossible. Note, however, that appliances which vibrate (such as gas tumble dryers) should always be connected with a hose, because the vibration may otherwise loosen the pipework joints. Only use hoses specifically approved for LPG: other hoses will rapidly be chemically broken down by LPG and subsequently leak or literally fall apart.

Selecting the Correct Hose Type

Hose applications can be classified as follows:

Where the hose is to go from a regulator fitted to a cylinder, either directly to an appliance or to pipework leading to an appliance, refer to Hoses for Connection to Regulators Fitted Directly to Cylinders. This typically includes cookers and cabinet heaters supplied from an adjacent cylinder, but also includes such items as hand-torches and blow-air heaters directly connected to cylinder regulators. This section also covers where hoses are made up to connect appliances to pipework (but again see the note above on avoiding this where possible). If you are considering using wire-braided armoured hose, read the section on Armoured Hoses, which warns on potential problems.

Where the hose is to be used for LPG in it's liquid form, such as for filling (cylinders, forklift trucks, cars, etc.) or using liquid LPG (LPG systems in cars or forklift trucks, grain-drying applications), refer to Hoses for Liquid LPG.

Where two or more cylinders are connected to a regulator, the outlet of which is then piped off to supply the gas appliances, special hoses are used to connect the cylinders to the manifold - refer to Cylinder Manifold Pigtails.

Catering equipment in commercial kitchens and restaurants, as well as domestic cookers connected to a pipework supply, are often connected using special hoses with a bayonet fitting on one end which allows them to be "unplugged" from the gas supply, such as for cleaning behind them - refer to Bayonet Fitting Disconnectable Hoses.

If in doubt, or in any cases not covered here, consult your gas supplier who should be happy to advise you on the correct hose for your application.

 

Hoses for Connection to Regulators Fitted Directly to Cylinders
Hoses for Connection to Regulators Fitted Directly to Cylinders

In these cases, the hose is subject to less pressure because the regulator reduces the gas pressure from the cylinder. For a number of reasons, hoses should generally be limited to 0.5m (18 inches) in length. Particularly with cookers, longer lengths run the risk of the hose inadvertently passing across a hot source, such as the oven vent on the back of a cooker. Longer runs than 0.5m should be made using pipework. The only exception is where absolutely necessary, which is for hand-torches and portable blow-air heaters. High-pressure hose must be used for high-pressure regulators (refer to Flogas LPG Cylinder Regulators, if necessary): high-pressure LPG hose should be stamped "BS 3212/2", low-pressure LPG hose should be stamped "BS 3212/1". For more information on these regulators and hoses, see Flogas LPG Cylinder Regulators

Warning: Make sure the hose is the correct diameter for the nozzle you are using. Note that if the hose is too large, a hose clip will NOT tighten it up sufficiently, because LPG hose is not sufficiently soft to allow it to be compressed to any extent. The hose should be a snug to tight fit on the nozzle BEFORE you put on the hose clip. There is also a problem fitting hose to a nozzle that is too large for it - in forcing it on, you will snap the braiding that is built into the hose. This leads to the hose being extremely weak adjacent to the nozzle, and instead of any movement being spread along the length of the hose, all the flexing will occur at the concentrated weak point, causing it to fail there.

 

Hoses for Liquid LPG

You MUST obtain these from an LPG company or a company specialising in your particular application (such as a vehicle LPG converter) as these have to be made to a higher specification than other hoses and require very experienced personnel to determine their suitability. Working on liquid LPG also requires additional training and knowledge that general gas contractors would not have.

 

Bayonet-fitting Disconnectable Hoses
Bayonet-fitting Disconnectable Hoses

These are in relatively widespread use and are available from suppliers of catering equipment, among other sources. They are disconnected by pushing the bayonet fitting in slightly, turning it, and pulling it back, similar to the way you remove an ordinary bayonet-fitting light-bulb from it's socket. As it unplugs, a sealing mechanism shuts off the gas supply to the hose. Warning: there are two types, one for LPG and one for Natural Gas, and they are NOT interchangeable. LPG versions have a large red band or a red stripe on the (usually black) hose, Natural Gas ones do not. If you use a Natural Gas one on LPG, it will rapidly deteriorate and leak.

 

Armoured Hoses
Armoured Hoses

There are a number of problems with wire-braided armoured hose which restricts their applicability. The first is that over time, during which the hose has been repeatedly flexed, the wire strands can break and the sharp ends can then puncture the hose. This means that these hoses should NOT be used indoors where a subsequent gas leak could accumulate. The second problem is that the condition of the hose is hidden by the wire braiding, so that if it does deteriorate, it will not be easily spotted. The only advantages that wire-braided hose have are that the wire braiding offers some protection where the hose would be regularly rubbed on the ground or other surface, and also the hose has a bit more protection if it comes in contact with hot sources. It's general, it's use should be limited to portable outdoor equipment where these issues arise, such as gas hand-torches. Repeated contact with hot sources should be avoided by design; for appliances such as braziers, use steel pipe instead of hose where the supply is close to the brazier; where this method cannot be used, consider fitting a heat shield.

 

Cylinder Manifold Pigtails
Cylinder Manifold Pigtails

These hoses connect directly to the cylinder valve and have to operate at full cylinder pressure. Accordingly, these should be purchased from an LPG distributor or an outlet specialising in cylinder manifold regulators: the hoses are pre-fitted with threaded end-pieces to suit the cylinder valve and the regulator connectors. Special safety devices may be incorporated in the ends, and the same level of safety will not be obtained with made-up hoses.



How To Use LPG Hoses

This section is concerned with the identification and correct use of cylinder regulators and their hoses. Regulators are used to reduce the pressure of gas in the cylinder to a lower pressure that is more suitable for the appliance and to keep the pressure fixed (within limits) at that value. For other hose types, refer to Guidelines on using LPG hoses.

Pressure and Gas Type

The two LPG gases, Butane and Propane, are very similar, and consequently many domestic appliances (e.g. most domestic cookers) are designed to run on either gas, but the standard supply pressure is somewhat different for each gas to accommodate the differences in the characteristics of the two gases. In the case of Butane, the standard supply pressure is 28 mbar (11" water gauge) and for Propane it is 37 mbar (14" water gauge) - regulators that supply either of these pressures are called "low pressure regulators". The appliance itself will have a badge on it identifying what gas and what pressure it is designed for. There are some appliances (not many) designed to work on considerably higher pressures and these use "high pressure regulators", and again these are clearly marked with what gas and what pressure they are designed for. DO NOT USE HIGH PRESSURE REGULATORS ON LOW PRESSURE APPLIANCES: THIS CAN LEAD TO A DANGEROUS SITUATION AND YOU MAY DAMAGE THE APPLIANCE.

Cylinders and Hoses

Each regulator is designed to fit a specific type of cylinder valve and a regulator that fits one type of valve will not fit any of the others.

The valve on Propane cylinders has a screw thread and only accommodates Propane regulators.

Butane is supplied by Flogas under two brands, Flogas and Ergas. The Flogas Butane cylinders are yellow and always use a "Jumbo" valve. There are two types of Ergas Butane cylinders: the orange ones have the same "Jumbo" valve as the Flogas cylinders, but the blue/green cylinders have a much narrower "Compact" valve.

High-pressure regulators have a much narrower nozzle than that fitted to low-pressure regulators and use a much narrower hose (see picture below). DO NOT TRY TO FORCE A HIGH-PRESSURE HOSE ONTO A LOW-PRESSURE NOZZLE: YOU WILL SNAP THE BRAIDING INSIDE THE HOSE AND THE HOSE MAY SUBSEQUENTLY CRACK AND LEAK, RESULTING IN A POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS SITUATION. Always match the hose size to the nozzle size and only use hose designed for LPG and to the correct standard.

Regulators and Their Identification

Butane Jumbo Low Pressure Regulator

Butane Jumbo Low Pressure Regulator

This is the standard regulator for Flogas Butane cylinders and Ergas Jumbo Butane cylinders (i.e. designed to fit Jumbo Butane valves), and regulates the pressure to the standard 28 mbar, which is the pressure required by most appliances designed to run on Butane.

Stock code 420

 

Butane Jumbo High Pressure Adjustable Regulator
Butane Jumbo High Pressure Adjustable Regulator

This is a high-pressure adjustable regulator for use with certain appliances / equipment, such as hand torches, cow dehorning units, and some "crow bangers". The outlet pressure is adjustable, but it's minimum setting is still very high (e.g. 500 mbar). DO NOT USE ON LOW PRESSURE APPLIANCES.

Stock code 1341

 

Butane Compact Low Pressure Regulator
Butane Compact Low Pressure Regulator

This is the standard regulator for Ergas Compact Butane cylinders (i.e. designed to fit Compact Butane valves), and regulates the pressure to the standard 28 mbar, which is the pressure required by most appliances designed to run on Butane.

Stock code 421

 

Propane Low Pressure Regulator

Propane Low Pressure Regulator

This is for use on propane cylinders, and regulates the pressure to the standard 37 mbar, which is the pressure required by most appliances designed to run on Propane.

Stock code 1321

 

Propane High Pressure Adjustable Regulator
Propane High Pressure Adjustable Regulator

This is for use on Propane cylinders, for use with certain appliances / equipment, such as hand torches, cow dehorning units, and some "crow bangers". The outlet pressure is adjustable, but it's minimum setting is still very high (e.g. 500 mbar). DO NOT USE ON LOW PRESSURE APPLIANCES.

Stock code 1344

 

Hoses and Hose Clips
Hoses and Hose Clips

These are two types of cylinder regulator hose in use by Flogas: (a) the smaller-diameter high-pressure hose (on the left in the picture) is for use with high-pressure regulators, and (b) the larger diameter for low-pressure regulators. Always ensure the hose size is suitable for the nozzle you are using. Use a high-pressure hose with a high pressure regulator. Do not use a high-pressure hose with a low-pressure Propane regulator. NEVER USE A HIGH-PRESSURE HOSE WITH A LOW-PRESSURE REGULATOR OR VISA-VERSA, ALWAYS CHECK THE NOZZLE SIZE.

Stock codes: low pressure hose 1370, low pressure hose clips 1376, high pressure hose 1373, high pressure hose clips 1375

What to do in the event of an LP Gas leak

What to do in the event of an LP Gas leak

LP Gas, in cylinders or tanks, has a distinctive smell added to enable you to clearly detect a leak. Never ignore a leak. Promptly take the following action: 

(a) Turn off the gas at the tank(s) or cylinder(s).

(b) In the case of indoor cylinders or cylinders in a small enclosed yard, disconnect the cylinder and remove to an open (outdoor) space.

(c) For indoor leaks, to disperse the gas, open all windows and doors to the outside. Avoid sources of ignition - no smoking, do not turn electrical switches on or off.

(d) For large outdoor leaks (i.e. where there is a smell of gas more than a few feet from the source), keep people, vehicles and ignition sources away. If necessary, cordon off the area and/or have someone stay there to control access.

(e) In the case of fire, immediately ring the fire brigade.